Content Standard B: Physical Science
- Substances react chemically in characteristic ways to form new substances.
- Heat moves in predictable ways
- The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth's surface.
Content Standard C: Life Science
- Disease is a breakdown in structures or functions of an organism.
- Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems.
- All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources while living in a constantly changing external environment.
- An organism's behavior evolves through adaptation to its environment.
- All populations living together and the physical factors with which they interact compose an ecosystem.
- Populations of organisms can be categorized by the function they serve in an ecosystem.
- The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and a variety of abiotic factors.
- Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today.
- Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.
- Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow its survival.
Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science
- Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria.
- Water evaporates from the earth's surface, rises and cools as it moves to higher elevations, condenses as rain or snow and falls back to the surface.
- The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor and carbon dioxide.
- Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. Oceans have a major effect on weather and climate.
- Living organisms have played many roles in the earth system including affecting the composition of the atmosphere.
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
- Science and technology are reciprocal. Science helps drive technology and technology is essential to science.
- Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technological solutions have tradeoffs.
- Technological designs have constraints that may limit choices in design.
- Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences. Some consequences can be predicted, others cannot.
Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
- Food provides energy and nutrients for growth and development. Nutrition requirements vary with body weight, age, sex, activity, and body functioning.
- Natural environments may contain substances that are harmful to human beings.
- Maintaining environmental health involves establishing or monitoring quality standards related to use of soil, water, and air.
- When an area becomes overpopulated, the environment will become degraded due to the increased use of resources.
- Causes of environmental degradation and resource depletion vary from region to region and from country to country.
- Human activities can induce hazards through resource acquisition, urban growth, land use decisions, and waste disposal. Such activities can accelerate many natural changes.
- Risk analysis considers the type of hazard and estimates the number of people that might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences.
- Students should understand the risks of natural hazards, chemical hazards (including pollution), biological hazards and social hazards.
- Individuals can use a systematic approach to thinking critically about risks and benefits.
- Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. Scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals in society think about others and the environment.
- The effect of science on society is neither entirely beneficial nor entirely detrimental.
- Social challenges often inspire questions for scientific research, and social priorities often influence research priorities through the availability of funding for research.
- Technology influences society through its products and processes. Technology influences the quality of life and the ways people act and interact. Technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes that can be beneficial or detrimental to individuals and society.
- Science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs.
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
- Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models.
- In areas where active research is being pursued and in which there is not a great deal of experimental or observational evidence and understanding, it is normal for scientists to differ with one another about the interpretation of the evidence or theory being considered.
- Different scientists might publish conflicting experimental results or might draw different conclusions from the same data.